The word "market" is diverse. However, it is generally used to represent both the primary and secondary markets.
The primary market is the market where securities are created. On the other hand, the secondary market refers to trading.
Understanding primary and secondary markets help understand the trading of bonds, stocks, and other securities. Navigation of the capital market will be challenging without them. In this article, we will help you understand the fundamental working of these markets and how individual investors can benefit from them.
The primary market is the place of security creation. On the other hand, the secondary market is the trading of securities.
Companies sell new bonds and stocks to the public for the first time in the primary market.
The secondary market is basically the stock market and refers to the Nasdaq, the New York Stock Exchange, and other exchanges worldwide.
What Is Primary Market?
The primary market refers to the place where securities are created. In this market, firms sell new bonds and stocks to the public for the first time. An example of the primary market is IPO (Initial Public Offering). These trades allow investors to buy securities from the bank.
For instance, a firm buys five other underwriting firms to identify its IPO financial details. They would get the detail about the issuing price of the stock. Thus, underwriters help investors to buy the IPO at the mentioned price from the issuing company. This is the first opportunity for investors to invest capital through stock purchasing. The equity capital of a company refers to the funds that a company generates by selling stocks on the primary market.
Types of Primary Offering
Companies can increase additional equity through the primary market with the help of the right offering. The market offers prorated rights to the current investors based on the number of shares they hold.
The primary market also offers preferential allotment and private placement. Private placements help companies to sell their stocks to other investors, such as banks or hedge funds, and qualified retail investors as well. Companies don't make their share publicly available in this process.
Likewise, governments and businesses issue new long and short-term bonds on the primary market to generate debt capital.
The coupon rates for new bonds are issued, determining the current interest rates at the time of issuance. The interest rates could vary and be lower or higher than the pre-existing bonds. In the primary market, investors can purchase securities directly from an issuer.
What Is a Secondary Market?
The secondary market is also referred to as the stock market while buying equities. Nasdaq, the New York Stock Exchange, and other major exchange markets across the globe are some examples of secondary markets. The secondary market is also characterized by trading among investors.
In other words, investors trade previously issued securities on the secondary market without the involvement of the issuing company. For instance, if you want to buy Amazon (AMZN) stock, you will only be dealing with other investors who also hold Amazon shares, not Amazon directly.
Although a bond in the debt markets is to pay its owner the entire par value when it matures, time is sometimes quite lengthy. Instead, if interest rates have fallen after the bond's issuance, bondholders can sell their bonds on the secondary market for a return. Since such bonds have higher coupon rates, they're valuable to other investors.
What Is OTC Market?
Have you ever heard any dealer saying "over-the-counter" market? The term is extracted from the off-Wall street trading in which traders used to sell shares "over-the-counter" in stock shops. In other words, the stock exchange doesn't list these stocks.
However, the OTC starts changing with time. The National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD), now the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), introduced Nasdaq in 1971 to introduce liquidity to companies relying on dealer networks for trading.  At the time, there were few regulations placed on shares trading over the counter, which the NASD tried to improve. As the Nasdaq has evolved over time to become a more important exchange, the definition of over-the-counter has become more ambiguous.
Stocks that are not traded on a stock exchange like the Nasdaq, NYSE, or American Stock Exchange (AMEX) are typically referred to as "over-the-counter" in today's market. It indicates that stock trading occurs on the pink sheets or over-the-counter bulletin boards.
These networks identify as sources of pricing data for securities, not exchanges. Companies that trade shares on an exchange must adhere to significantly more restrictions than OTCBB and pink sheet companies. Penny stocks and securities from extremely small companies trade many securities this way.
The Bottom Line
Understanding the market's structure is beneficial even though all market activities don't affect individual investors.
To understand how the market function, it's essential to understand the introduction and trading of securities in the market. Imagine a world without established secondary markets; it would not be easy to buy or sell a stock without locating other investors individually.