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为了你的iPhone能磁吸充电,苹果又花了5亿买材料
In order to charge your iPhone magnetically, Apple Inc spent another 500 million on materials.

新浪財經綜合 ·  {{timeTz}}

  原标题:焦点分析 为了你的iPhone能磁吸充电,苹果又花了5亿买材料 来源:36氪

Original title: focus Analysis for the magnetic charging of your iPhone, Apple Inc spent another 500 million on materials source: 36Kr Holdings

  作者 | 袁斯来

Author | Yuan Silai

  编辑 | 苏建勋

Editor | Su Jianxun

  iPhone 12刚发布时,回归的MagSafe吸引了用户不少兴趣。苹果第一次将磁吸式充电用到手机上,看上去新鲜又有未来感。

When iPhone 12 was first released, the return of MagSafe attracted a lot of interest from users. Apple Inc used magnetic charging on his mobile phone for the first time, looking fresh and futuristic.

  这项技术中,关键零件是隐藏在iPhone后盖的永磁体,必须用上钕铁硼磁铁这种产量有限的材料。它由稀土提炼加工,背后涉及一条限制严格的产业链。

In this technology, the key part is the permanent magnet hidden in the back cover of the iPhone, and a material with limited production such as NdFeB magnet must be used. It is extracted and processed by rare earths, which involves a strictly restricted industrial chain.

  除了永磁体,手机内部的马达、屏幕也会用到稀土氧化物。这些被称为“国家战略物资”的矿石,正在成为各方争抢的关键资源。在这场竞争中,苹果面临的不止是手机厂商,还包括新能源汽车,甚至家电厂家。

In addition to permanent magnets, rare earth oxides are also used in the motors and screens inside the phone. These minerals, known as "national strategic materials", are becoming the key resources contested by all parties. In this competition, Apple Inc faces not only mobile phone manufacturers, but also new energy vehicles and even home appliance manufacturers.

  1月11日,做稀土回收料再提炼的华宏科技宣布,子公司鑫泰科技和苹果达成合作,它们将在未来一年给苹果提供氧化镨钕产品,每月为50吨。按照目前氧化镨钕的最高价计算,这笔交易的金额约为5.4亿元。

Huahong Technology, which does rare earth recycling and reprocessing, announced on January 11 that its subsidiary Xintai Technology and Apple Inc have reached a partnership to supply Apple Inc with praseodymium and neodymium oxide products of 50 tons per month in the coming year. According to the current highest price of praseodymium and neodymium oxide, the transaction is worth about 540 million yuan.

  鑫泰科技2019年10月就开始和苹果沟通,现在才完全敲定合作。他们提供的氧化镨钕可以用在MagSafe等磁材上。

Xintai Science and Technology began to communicate with Apple Inc in October 2019, and now it is only now that the cooperation has been fully finalized. The praseodymium and neodymium oxide they provide can be used in magnetic materials such as MagSafe.

  其实苹果很早就在准备更稳妥的方案。iPhone 11时,线性马达Taptic Engine就百分百使用回收稀土提炼的产品制成,这个马达占了总体稀土使用量四分之一。苹果也是第一个在手机主要元器件中使用回收稀土材料的厂商。

In fact, Apple Inc has been preparing a more stable plan for a long time. IPhone 11:00, the linear motor Taptic Engine, which accounts for 1/4 of the total rare earth use, is made entirely of products extracted from recycled rare earths. Apple Inc is also the first manufacturer to use recycled rare earth materials in major mobile phone components.

  苹果使用回收稀土材料制造的零件,为它们致力“环保”的形象又加了一笔,不过正如苹果自己表示的,这样做也是为了保证供应稳定。

Apple Inc uses parts made from recycled rare earth materials to add to their image of being "environmentally friendly", but as Apple Inc himself said, it is also to ensure a stable supply.

  最近几年,“环保”时常出现在苹果的公关和发布会中,也慢慢融入了生产和终端。这家市值近3万亿美元公司的行动,其实也代表了趋势:在双碳背景下,企业们得重视起对他们来说陌生的“碳足迹”、“碳中和”了。

In recent years, "environmental protection" has often appeared in Apple Inc's public relations and press conferences, and has been gradually integrated into production and terminals. The action of this company with a market capitalization of nearly $3 trillion actually represents a trend: in a dual-carbon context, companies have to pay attention to their unfamiliar "carbon footprint" and "carbon neutralization".

  为环保还是为保供应?

For environmental protection or for protection of supply?

  苹果一直在想办法更多使用回收稀土制造的材料。

Apple Inc has been trying to find ways to make more use of materials made from recycled rare earths.

  手机零部件其实已经是整个稀土产业链的最下游。处于上游的是稀土开采矿开采两大集团,开采的原材料由他们冶炼成氧化物、稀土金属等,最后由下游加工成稀土磁性材料、稀土发光材料等,最终进入新能源汽车、手机等等产品。

In fact, mobile phone parts are already the lowest reaches of the entire rare earth industry chain. Located upstream are the two major groups of rare earth mining and mining, whose raw materials are smelted into oxides and rare earth metals, and finally processed downstream into rare earth magnetic materials, rare earth luminous materials, and so on, and finally into new energy vehicles, mobile phones and other products.

  稀土属于不可再生资源,开采和冶炼都由国家严格把控,只有北方稀土和中国稀土集团有开采和冶炼资格,它们也只给协议厂商供货。苹果合作的赣州科力稀土新材料有限公司,股东之一是制造永磁材料的厂商中科三环,他们可以从两大稀土集团采购稀土材料。

Rare earths are non-renewable resources, and mining and smelting are strictly controlled by the state. Only Northern rare earths and Chinese rare earth groups are qualified to mine and smelt rare earths, and they only supply to agreement manufacturers. One of the shareholders of Ganzhou Keli rare Earth New Materials Co., Ltd., which Apple Inc cooperates, is Zhongke Sanhuan, a manufacturer of permanent magnet materials, which can purchase rare earth materials from two major rare earth groups.

  稀土本就是实行指标控制的行业,每年增加数量有限,但需求却在爆发。除了手机,新能源汽车、家电、电梯等等都要用到稀土金属,尤其是交付量水涨船高的新能源汽车,也要用到钕铁硼磁材,每年需求量都以双位数增加,但供给端显然无法满足需求。

Rare earths are already a target-controlled industry, with a limited increase in quantity every year, but demand is breaking out. In addition to mobile phones, new energy vehicles, home appliances, elevators and so on all use rare earth metals, especially new energy vehicles with rising delivery, as well as neodymium-iron-boron magnets, and the annual demand is increasing by double digits, but the supply side is obviously unable to meet the demand.

  正经历这几年最大换机潮的苹果,对稀土材料的需求也节节攀升,iPhone 12卖出1亿部的时间比iPhone 11提前了2个月,根据counterpoint预计,iPhone 13销量还会超过iPhone 12。

Apple Inc, who is going through the biggest replacement wave in recent years, is also on the rise in demand for rare earth materials. IPhone 12 sold 100m units two months earlier than iPhone 11, and counterpoint expects iPhone 13 to outsell iPhone 12.

  这一轮供需失衡带来稀土价格攀升,苹果这次采购的氧化镨钕2020年8月为40万元/吨,现在价格已经到了90.6万元/吨,而且还很难抢到。

This round of imbalance between supply and demand has led to a rise in the price of rare earths. Apple Inc's purchase of praseodymium and neodymium oxide was 400000 yuan / ton in August 2020, and now the price has reached 906000 yuan / ton, and it is difficult to get it.

  “价格现在是一直在涨,市场缺货,所以苹果和上游锁定材料,也是保证供货稳定。”从事稀土行业的飞扬磁电公司总经理张利锋对36氪表示。

"the price is now rising all the time, and the market is out of stock, so Apple Inc and upstream locking materials are also to ensure a stable supply." Zhang Lifeng, general manager of Feiyang Magnetoelectric Company, who is engaged in the rare earth industry, told 36Kr Holdings.

  稀土回收料冶炼的氧化物,其实价格并不会更低,不过当稀土开采日益谨慎时,供应会更稳定。

The price of oxides smelted from rare earth recycled materials will not be lower, but when rare earth mining becomes more cautious, the supply will be more stable.

  苹果曾经想过直接从iPhone里回收稀土,但操作中发现效率太低,每回收10万台iPhone,能提取的稀土只有32公斤,找第三方供应商才是性价比更高的选择。

Apple Inc once thought of recovering rare earths directly from iPhone, but found that the operation was too inefficient. For every 100000 sets of iPhone recovered, only 32 kilograms of rare earths can be extracted. Finding a third-party supplier is a more cost-effective choice.

  稀土回收行业也正逐渐为人关注,华宏科技2021年Q3财报现实,他们的营收同比上升116.32%,扣非净利润同比上升179.63%。这家公司早年做电梯零部件,2020年并购鑫泰科技后才开始涉足稀土回收,这部分已经占去了30%营收,成了华宏科技最大的业务。

The rare earth recycling industry is also getting more and more attention. Huahong Technology reported that its Q3 financial results in 2021 showed that its revenue rose 116.32% compared with the same period last year, and its non-net profit increased by 179.63% compared with the same period last year. The company, which made elevator parts in its early years, did not dabble in rare earth recycling until it acquired Xintai technology in 2020, which has accounted for 30% of revenue and has become Huahong's largest business.

  使用回收稀土制造的材料,并不意味着苹果就可以为供给高枕无忧。

The use of recycled rare earth materials does not mean that Apple Inc can rest easy for the supply.

  一位投资人告诉36氪,目前处理1万吨废料,能提取出2000-3000吨氧化物。这意味着回收稀土冶炼的氧化物供给仍然有限。

An investor told 36Kr Holdings that 2000 to 3000 tons of oxide can be extracted from the current treatment of 10, 000 tons of waste. This means that the supply of oxides for recycling rare earth smelting is still limited.

  当环保成为议题

When environmental protection becomes an issue

  虽然苹果使用回收稀土更大的原因是为了保证供应,他们也乐于自己的环保之路再进一步。

Although Apple Inc uses recycled rare earths more to ensure supply, they are also happy to go one step further on their own road to environmental protection.

  苹果重视绿色、可再生这类词汇的时间并不算久。起码在乔布斯时代,环保从来不是他们关注的重点。很长一段时间,苹果公司内只有一个人去管理环境影响。当环保组织倡导在产品上印资源回收编码时,苹果拒绝了,因为“不够好看”。他们和绿色和平之间还经历过来回舆论拉锯战,乔布斯还亲自发公开信辩护。

Apple Inc has not been paying attention to such words as green and renewable for a long time. At least in the Jobs era, environmental protection was never their focus. For a long time, there was only one person in Apple Inc's company to manage the environmental impact. When environmental groups advocated printing recycling codes on products, Apple Inc refused because it was "not pretty enough." There has also been a tug-of-war between them and Greenpeace, and Jobs himself sent an open letter to defend it.

  热衷登山和骑行的库克掌舵后,苹果对环保的态度变了不少。包括从产品中剔除污染较重的聚氯乙烯,换成更绿色的材料,2015年,苹果还和第一太阳能合作建了座8.5亿美元的太阳能发电站。

After Cook, who is keen on mountaineering and cycling, took the helm, Apple Inc's attitude towards environmental protection changed a lot. Including removing the more polluting PVC from its products and replacing it with greener materials, Apple Inc also partnered with first Solar to build a $850 million solar power plant in 2015.

  目前来看,苹果已经成了环保标杆。它们在产品中使用再生铝,用Liam机器人从iPhone中回收材料,减少了430万吨碳足迹,平均能耗比12年前有73%降幅。他们甚至砍掉了附带充电器(当然也提高了一些净利润),不断缩小包装盒体积,去掉塑封,减少塑料使用量。

At present, Apple Inc has become the benchmark of environmental protection. They use recycled aluminum in their products and use Liam robots to recover materials from iPhone, reducing their carbon footprint by 4.3 million tonnes and reducing average energy consumption by 73 per cent compared with 12 years ago. They even cut off the attached charger (and, of course, increased some net profit), shrinking the size of the box, removing the plastic package, and reducing the use of plastic.

  苹果还提出了雄心勃勃的计划:它们将在2030年前,在整体业务、生产供应链、产品生命周期都实现100%碳中和。

Apple Inc has also come up with ambitious plans to achieve 100 per cent carbon neutrality in the overall business, production supply chain and product life cycle by 2030.

  这意味着供应商们必须更“绿色”,毕竟苹果77%的碳足迹都在供应链中。要成为苹果供应商,环保也成了考量因素。根据苹果去年公布的数据,中国已经有50 家公司加入供应商清洁能源项目,比2020年增加了一倍以上。

This means that suppliers must be more "green". After all, 77 per cent of Apple Inc's carbon footprint is in the supply chain. To become a supplier of Apple Inc, environmental protection has also become a consideration. According to data released by Apple Inc last year, 50 Chinese companies have joined supplier clean energy projects, more than double the number in 2020.

  苹果的动作也带来不少争议,包括牺牲用户体验后,他们是否会寻找消耗更大的替代品?这是否只是一种排放转移而非真实的排放减少。

Apple Inc's actions have also brought a lot of controversy, including whether they will look for more expensive alternatives at the expense of user experience. Whether this is just an emission transfer rather than a real emission reduction.

  但不可否认,以苹果的体量和影响力,它的行为的确有示范作用。2021年被很多人称为“碳中和”元年,未来必然会有更多企业关注“碳中和”,在自己的产线中使用可回收和环境友好材料。它或许并不会为企业本身带来多少品牌加成或即时性收益,却对可持续的未来至关重要。

However, it is undeniable that with Apple Inc's size and influence, his behavior does play an exemplary role. In 2021, many people call it the first year of "carbon neutralization". In the future, more enterprises will pay attention to "carbon neutralization" and use recyclable and environmentally friendly materials in their own production lines. It may not bring much brand bonus or immediate benefits to the company itself, but it is essential for a sustainable future.

  图片来自36氪

The picture is from 36Kr Holdings.

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